Published on Wed Oct 06 2021

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells integrate Bacteroides-derived innate immune signals to promote gut tissue repair

Hayashi, Y., Sezaki, M., Nakato, G., Biswas, S., Fakruddin, M., Morishima, T., Moon, J., Ahn, S., Kim, P., Miyamoto, Y., Baba, H., Fukuda, S., Takizawa, H.

Bone marrow (BM)-resident hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are often activated by bacterial insults to replenish the host hemato-immune system. How they integrate the associated tissue damage signals to initiate distal tissue repair is largely unknown.

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Abstract

Bone marrow (BM)-resident hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are often activated by bacterial insults to replenish the host hemato-immune system, but how they integrate the associated tissue damage signals to initiate distal tissue repair is largely unknown. Here, we showed that acute gut inflammation expands HSPCs in the BM through GM-CSFR activation, and directs them to inflamed mesenteric lymph nodes for further differentiation into myeloid cells specialized in gut tissue repair. We also identified that this process is exclusively mediated by Bacteroides, a commensal gram-negative bacteria, that activates innate immune signaling. In contrast, chronic gut inflammation reduces HSC potential for hematopoietic reconstitution and immune response against infection. Similarly, microbial signals contribute to aging-associated HSPC expansion. These findings establish a cross-organ communication that promotes tissue regeneration, but if sustained, impairs tissue homeostasis that may be relevant to aging and chronic disorders.