Published on Mon Sep 20 2021

Exploring the structural basis to develop efficient multi-epitope vaccines displaying interaction with HLA and TAP and TLR3 molecules to prevent NIPAH infection, a global threat to human health

Srivastava, S., Saxena, A. K., Kolbe, M.

Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging zoonotic virus responsible to cause several serious outbreaks in South Asian region. NiV infection causes lethal encephalitis and respiratory disease with the symptom of endothelial cell-cell fusion. No specific vaccine has yet been reported against NiV.

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Abstract

Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging zoonotic virus responsible to cause several serious outbreaks in South Asian region with high mortality rate of 40 to 90% since 2001. NiV infection causes lethal encephalitis and respiratory disease with the symptom of endothelial cell-cell fusion. No specific vaccine has yet been reported against NiV infection. Recently, some Multi-Epitope Vaccines (MEV) has been proposed but they involve limited number of epitopes which further limits the potential of vaccine. To address the urgent need for a specific and effective vaccine against NiV infection, in the present study, we have design two multi-epitope vaccines (MEVs) composed of 33 Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes and 38 Helper T lymphocyte (HTL) epitopes. Both the MEVs carry potential B cell linear epitope overlapping regions, B cell discontinuous epitopes as well as IFN-{gamma} inducing epitopes. Hence the designed MEVs carry potential to elicit cell-mediated as well as humoral immune response. Selected CTL and HTL epitopes were validated for their stable molecular interactions with HLA class I and II alleles as well as in case of CTL epitopes, with human transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). Human {beta}-defensin 2 and {beta}-defensin 3 were used as adjuvants to enhance the immune response of both the MEVs. The molecular dynamics simulation study of MEVs-TLR3(ECD) (Toll-Like Receptor 3 Ectodomain) complex indicated stable molecular interaction. Further, the codon optimized cDNA of both the MEVs has shown high expression potential in the mammalian host cell line (Human). Hence for further studies, both the design of CTL and HTL MEVs could be cloned, expressed and tried for in-vivo validations (animal trails) as potential vaccine candidates against NiV infection.