Published on Wed Jul 07 2021

Clostridium difficile Toxin B activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages, demonstrating a novel regulatory mechanism for the Pyrin inflammasome

Mangan, M. S. J., Gorki, F., Krause, K., Heinz, A., Ebert, T., Jahn, D., Hiller, K., Hornung, V., Mauer, M., Schmidt, F. I., Gerhard, R., Latz, E.

Pyrin is a cytosolic immune sensor that forms an inflammasome when bacterial virulence factors inhibit RhoA, triggering the release of inflammatory cytokines. Gain of function mutations in the MEFV gene encoding Pyrin cause auto-inflammatory disorders.

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Abstract

Pyrin is a cytosolic immune sensor that forms an inflammasome when bacterial virulence factors inhibit RhoA, triggering the release of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1{beta}. Gain of function mutations in the MEFV gene encoding Pyrin cause auto-inflammatory disorders, such as familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and Pyrin associated auto-inflammation with Neutrophilic Dermatosis (PAAND). To precisely define the role of Pyrin in detecting pathogen virulence factors in relevant human immune cells, we investigated how the Pyrin inflammasome response was initiated and regulated in monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDM) compared to human monocytes. Unlike monocytes and murine macrophages, we determined that hMDM failed to activate Pyrin in response to known Pyrin activators Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) toxins A or B (TcdA or TcdB). In contrast, TcdB activated the NLRP3 inflammasome in hMDM. Notably, we ascertained that the Pyrin inflammasome response could be re-enabled in hMDM by prolonged priming with either LPS or type I or II interferons, and required an increase in Pyrin expression. These data demonstrate an unexpected redundancy in detecting these toxins by inflammasome sensors.