Published on Mon May 31 2021

BrainEXP-NPD: a database of transcriptomic profiles of human brains of six neuropsychiatric disorders

Xia, C., Ma, T., Jiao, C., Chen, C., Liu, C.

Most differentially expressed genes were brain region-specific and disease-specific. SCZ and BD have a maximal transcriptome similarity in striatum among the four brain regions. PD is negatively correlated with SCZ, BD, and MDD in cerebellum and striatum. BrainEXP-NPD compiled the largest collection of brain transcriptomic data of major neuropsychiatric disorders.

1
0
0
Abstract

BackgroundSpatio-temporal gene expression has been widely used to study gene functions and biological mechanisms in diseases. Numerous microarray and RNA sequencing data focusing on brain transcriptomes in neuropsychiatric disorders have accumulated. However, their consistency, reproducibility has not been properly evaluated. Except for a few psychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism, most have not been compared to each other for cross-disorder comparisons. MethodsWe organized 48 human brain transcriptome datasets from six sources. The original brain donors include patients with schizophrenia (SCZ, N=427), bipolar disorder (BD, N=312), major depressive disorder (MDD, N=219), autism spectrum disorder (ASD, N=53), Alzheimers disease (AD, N=765), Parkinsons disease (PD, N=163) as well as controls as unaffected by such disorders (CTRL, N=6,378), making it a total of 8,317 samples. Raw data included multiple brain regions of both sexes, with ages ranging from embryonic to seniors. After standardization, quality control, filtering and removal of known and unknown covariates, we performed comprehensive meta- and mega-analyses, including gene differential expression and gene co-expression network. ResultsA total of 6922, 3011, 2703, 4389, 3507, 4279 significantly differentially expressed genes (FDR q < 0.05) were detected in the comparisons of 6 brain regions of SCZ-CTRL, 5 brain regions of BD-CTRL, 6 brain regions of MDD-CTRL, 4 brain regions of ASD-CTRL, 7 brain regions of AD-CTRL, and 6 brain regions of PD-CTRL, respectively. Most differentially expressed genes were brain region-specific and disease-specific. SCZ and BD have a maximal transcriptome similarity in striatum ({rho}=0.42) among the four brain regions, as measured by Spearmans correlation of differential expression log2 FC values. SCZ and MDD have a maximal transcriptome similarity in hippocampus ({rho}=0.30) among the five brain regions. BD and MDD have a maximal transcriptome similarity in frontal cortex ({rho}=0.45) among the five brain regions. Other disease pairs have a less transcriptome similarity ({rho}<0.1) in all brain regions. PD is negatively correlated with SCZ, BD, and MDD in cerebellum and striatum. We also performed coexpression network analyses for different disorders and controls separately. We developed a database named BrainEXP-NPD (http://brainexpnpd.org:8088/BrainEXPNPD/), to provide a userfriendly web interface for accessing the data, and analytical results of meta- and mega-analyses, including gene differential expression and gene co-expression networks between cases and controls on different brain regions, sexes and age groups. Discussion: BrainEXP-NPD compiled the largest collection of brain transcriptomic data of major neuropsychiatric disorders and presented lists of differentially expressed genes and coexpression modules in multiple brain regions of six major disorders.